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Pomeranian: Breed Characteristics, Care & Nutrition

Pomeranian: History

The Pomeranian is descended from the Spitz and nowadays comes in many different sizes and colors. The exact origin of the tip cannot be traced exactly. However, it can be assumed that the pointed race appeared early in many regions of the world. Mycenaean pieces of terracotta and Greek vases depict dogs that come very close to a spitz and possibly represent a “primordial spitz”. Some sources describe the Spitz as the oldest dog breed in Central Europe.

More than 200 years ago, the English brought small Pomeranian peaks back home. In the course of breeding, the dogs became smaller and smaller and were called “Pomeranians” because of their origin. The Pomeranian finally came back to Germany in the 1970s. There he was given the name Pomeranian because of his height.

The Pomeranian is assigned to FCI Group 5 “Spitzer and archetype dogs” in Section 4 “European Spitz”.

Pomeranian: breed characteristics

Essence and temperament

The German Spitz is alert, lively, and very affectionate. He is also very gentle, docile, and quite easy to train, which is an advantage, especially with puppies. The little dog tends to be suspicious of strangers, which makes it the ideal guard dog for the house and yard. The German Spitz is neither timid nor aggressive and usually has no hunting instinct. Its most positive properties also include weather resistance, robustness, and durability.

The Pomeranian is a very intelligent, spirited dog that always needs activity and entertainment. While he appears very robust at first glance, he is actually extremely sensitive and reacts quite bitchy when he notices that his master wants to leave the house without him. The little dog then tends to squeak and whine. Bouts of desperation and anger are not uncommon in such cases.

The character of the Pomeranian Zwergspitz can best be described as affectionate, loyal, attentive, and lively.

Pointers generally have a very high level of self-confidence and some tend to overestimate themselves. Then it can happen that larger dogs are provoked. However, a good upbringing can help.

The Pomeranian’s nature and character make it an ideal family dog. The cute four-legged friends get along well with other dogs, cats, small animals, and children. This breed is also suitable for older people, as they are good on a leash, and walking a dog weighing a maximum of 3.5 kilograms is usually not strenuous.

If the high spirits of the little four-legged friend get too big, he is well protected with the dog health insurance of the DFV. The DFV animal health protection provides up to 100% reimbursement of costs for illnesses and operations. For the all-round carefree package, the DFV dog owner liability insurance offers protection against personal injury, property damage, and financial loss caused by your four-legged friend. So you are protected for really all skins worldwide!


With a shoulder height of 18 to 22 cm, the Pomeranian Miniature Spitz is the smallest representative of the German Spitz and one of the smallest dog breeds. The four-legged friend reaches a weight of 1.9 to 3.5 kilograms. It is most commonly found in its classic orange color. Nowadays, however, there are a wide variety of color variations between black, white, brown, orange, or cloudy gray. In general, many colors are possible with this breed, which also changes during development from puppy to adult dog.

Spitz has a beautiful coat with a long coat, dense undercoat, prominent lion-like collar, and bushy tail. Pomeranians are often shorn and then captivate with the typical teddy bear look. The pointed ears and the round saucer eyes are particularly striking.

The small dogs have short, straight, and tight backs. The paws are small and round. The front paws are designed as so-called cat paws. The Pomeranian head is reminiscent of a fox, which gives it its characteristic, perky appearance.

Education of Pomeranian puppies

Good training is the basis for a harmonious coexistence of man and dog. This also applies to the Pomeranian.

When training Pomeranian puppies, it is important to take the little one seriously from the start and to follow through with the training consistently, even if it takes a lot of time and effort. Animals learn the fastest when they are puppies and no matter how cute they are, you shouldn’t let them get away with anything that they shouldn’t do later. With praise and consistency, the fastest successes can be achieved and undesirable behavior can be prevented. Puppies learn new commands best through play. Early socialization when dealing with dogs and other pets is also recommended, as otherwise, the Pomeranian Miniature Spitz likes to show off. Attending a dog school is definitely recommended.

Tips for training Pomeranian puppies:

  • Initially, toilet training and basic obedience are the most important aspects of puppy training.
    Be consistent but not too dogged.
  • First, focus on the basics like “sit” and “come.” Later you can build on what you have learned.
    Don’t overwhelm the puppy.
  • You must be the dog’s boss, otherwise, he has no reason to obey your orders.
  • Refrain from violence and shouting. Always remain calm, patient, and consistent. If you set rules, they must always be followed, with no exceptions. Exceptions confuse the pup.
  • Practice all commands several times a day. Use praise and blame. Graduate the reward according to success and punish certain behaviors of your Pomeranian puppies always, not just sometimes.
  • Gradually introduce the Pomeranian puppy to being alone. Start with short absences and only gradually increase the duration. You make saying goodbye more difficult for the little one if you say goodbye extensively.

Activities with the Pomeranian

The Pomeranian is one of the very active and lively dog ​​breeds. Playing and romping are accordingly among his favorite pastimes. Pomeranian owners should therefore have enough time for several walks a day. Due to its small size, the animal can usually be taken anywhere without any problems. Playing with the ball, learning tricks or even dog sports make the loyal companion particularly happy. Even at home, the four-legged friend should be sufficiently mentally occupied, otherwise he will quickly come up with stupid ideas and look for his own occupation, which the master and mistress may not like very much.

Sports for the Pomeranian

Even if the small, dainty dog ​​doesn’t look like it at first – the Pomeranian needs a lot of exercises. Since he also needs to be encouraged mentally, it is advisable to do something that challenges the mind and body. Incidentally, the joint sporting activity also promotes the bond between master and dog.

These sports are suitable for the Pomeranian:


This dog sport was invented in England about a century ago. A distinction is made between four classes: the beginner class and the performance levels one to three. Each level includes ten different exercises of increasing difficulty. fetched flawlessly and the position had to be changed. It is not about speed, but about concentrated and precise work as well as feeling and harmony between man and dog. The basics of obedience are the well-known commands “sit”, “down”, “stay”, and “heel”.

No special equipment is required for the training. The collar and leash are perfectly adequate. The dogs are challenged according to their individual possibilities and the training goals are set higher step by step. If master and dog are fit enough, there is the opportunity to take part in competitions.

The varied training in obedience offers the Pomeranian sufficient physical exercise. Due to the changing tasks, he is also mentally challenged at the same time.


Agility also comes from England and has also become very well known in Germany in recent years. Different obstacles are completed in a different order. It depends above all on speed, dexterity, and good leadership in the dog. As a rule, these requirements do not pose a problem for a Pomeranian. Master and dog must be able to harmonize, complement and rely on each other in agility.

The hurdles are lowered depending on the size of the dog, so that small dogs like the Pomeranian can also have a go. Other actions include running in a tunnel, balancing on a footbridge, running a slalom, or walking over a seesaw.

Rally Obedience

This dog sport comes from the USA and combines elements of obedience and agility. Obstacles in a course are overcome at breakneck speed, while masters cheer on their four-legged friends and motivate them with voice commands and hand signals. So the four-legged friends z. B. after a 90° turn, run a slalom, jump over a hurdle or simply execute the “sit” command. The tasks are varied and promise not to be boring. They require a lot of exercise and focus, making them perfect for the Pomeranian.

Dog dance

Dog dancing or dog dance is a dog sport from America and is still quite new in this country. As the name suggests, rhythmic movement to music is required. Various elements of obedience are combined with dance tricks to create a choreography.

Examples of typical tasks in this sport include slalom running, walking around the gentleman’s legs, walking backward/sideways, jumping, turning, paw work, and manikin. The dog owner guides the four-legged friend with voice commands and body signals.

Nose work

Nose work is a mental challenge for every dog, in which he must not be distracted and must be highly concentrated. This activity can also be prepared and completed at home or on a walk. You simply hide aromatic treats in different places, which were previously dragged across the ground for the purpose of tracking. The Pomeranian must rely on its nose when searching.

Dog tricking

In dog tricking, unusual tricks are learned in a playful way. For the Pomeranian, also known as the circus dog, such activity is one of the best ways to stay fit. He learns to jump through hoops or walk on his hind legs. Dog schools or private dog trainers offer special courses for this.

Rules for the sporty team of dwarf spitz and human:

To ensure that your little friend can really let off steam, there are a few rules to follow:

  • Never challenge the dog with strenuous activities immediately after meals. There is a risk of gastric torsion.
  • After a long, strenuous walk, he first needs a rest, especially in warm and humid weather.
  • A sick animal should never be subjected to exertion.
  • It is best to schedule the sports lesson between two meals and after a short walk.
  • Sporting activity should be fun for the Pomeranian. Therefore, it is important not to force him to do certain activities and not to overwhelm him.

Pomeranian: care

The magnificent fur of the little Spitz should be brushed thoroughly twice a week and brushed against the grain. Special cleaners from specialist shops are suitable for eye and ear care. To keep teeth healthy, special dog toothpaste and a dog toothbrush are recommended. If you get your dog used to this care when it is a puppy, you can effectively prevent tartar. Alternatively or in addition, dental care snacks or dry chews for small dogs can be used.

Pomeranian: nutrition

Being overweight is more than harmful for the fine joints of the small dog, which is why it should not be overweight. From home, however, the breed is generally not considered to be particularly “gluttonous”. As a holder, however, you should counteract the excess. Certain conditions, such as PHTP, may require a special diet.

The Pomeranian Pomeranian can be fed both dry and wet food. However, dry food should have a very low grain content, as this can lead to obesity and digestive disorders in the long term. There are a number of suppliers that produce specially blended dry food tailored for the breed and individual body measurements. This usually contains a high proportion of meat, vegetables, and valuable minerals and vitamins. Inferior wet food contains a lot of meat waste, which offers the spitz nothing worth mentioning. The BARF method can also be used as an alternative.

With age, digestion becomes sluggish, salivation decreases and teeth wear down. Hard dry food or chewing bones can then become a challenge or even cause pain. Adjust the food accordingly or work with your veterinarian to develop a nutrition plan for the senior. It can also make sense to reduce the amount of food and to feed more frequently during the day. This does not unnecessarily burden the digestive tract.

If the old Pomeranian suffers from a loss of appetite, particularly high-quality and tasty food is ideal so that the dog does not become too thin. Make sure you drink enough water to prevent kidney problems.

Pomeranian: Typical diseases and breed-related problems

Pomeranians are generally very robust and long-lived contemporaries. However, they are not always spared from genetic diseases.

Hip dysplasia (HD) is common among larger spikes. This misalignment of the hip joints leads to lameness. Although the Pomeranian is mostly spared, it cannot be ruled out that representatives of the Pomeranian breed also have a genetic disposition for the disease.

Patellar dislocation is also common. The knee joint often jumps out of its original position and shifts inwards or outwards. The luxating patella leads to paralysis.

Pomeranians suffer from what is known as alopecia X, hair loss with an unknown cause. This starts at the paws and then spreads over the entire torso of the animal. The bald spots turn black. In some cases, the hair grows back and in some cases, it doesn’t. Apart from hair loss and a dull coat, the disease has no consequences.

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), an overactivity of the parathyroid gland, can occur in Pomeranians for genetic reasons. The disease leads to a calcium imbalance. As a result, the kidneys fail because they are calcified. Diseased dogs age prematurely and die early. Usually, they don’t get older than 8 years. If the disease is detected early in a young dog, it can be counteracted with appropriate nutrition.

Is the Pomeranian right for me?

The affectionate four-legged friends prefer to be with you everywhere and should not have to be left alone for long. Despite their pronounced liveliness, they can let off steam with games and do not require long walks from the dog owner. They are therefore suitable for older people as well as for professionals who are allowed to take their dog to the office.

Families with small children should make sure that the four-legged friend has enough places to retreat because even a peaceful dog can bite if it is cornered.

Dog newcomers usually get along very well with a Pomeranian, if they do not underestimate the time required for play and grooming. Keeping them in a city apartment isn’t a problem either, as Pomeranians adapt quickly to any environment as long as their caregiver spends a lot of time with them.

Due to its great affection, you should not leave the Pomeranian in the hands of strangers on vacation. With its size, it is easy to transport and can even be taken into the cabin when flying in an appropriate transport box.

Before buying, it is important to remember that keeping the little one busy and caring for them will take a lot of time every day. The costs for buying the puppy, for the initial equipment (bowls, collar, dishes, leash, toys, blankets, baskets, care utensils, car transport security), and for regular expenses (dog liability insurance, dog tax, veterinarian, etc.) are not disregarded allow. If the dog is ill, these costs can quickly skyrocket.

Is the Pomeranian a family dog?

Pomeranians are very suitable as family dogs. They are extremely fond of children and look forward to regular employment. Nevertheless, like all other breeds, the small four-legged friend should never be left alone with small children. Since the Pomeranian needs a lot of attention and does not like to be left alone, he is not suitable for full-time professionals. Housing is generally not a problem as long as the Pomeranian is offered enough variety and exercise.

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